When did the Toltec civilization begin and end?

When did the Toltec civilization begin and end?

The Toltec civilization is believed to have emerged around the 10th century AD in Mesoamerica, specifically in the region of central Mexico. The city of Tula, also known as Tollan, is considered the capital and cultural center of the Toltec civilization. The early period of Toltec dominance is characterized by military expansion and the establishment of a vast empire that extended its influence over much of central Mexico and beyond.

When did the Toltec civilization begin and end?

The Toltecs are renowned for their architectural achievements, with impressive structures such as temples and palaces adorned with intricate carvings and sculptures. Their artistry reflects their religious beliefs, which revolved around the worship of gods like Quetzalcoatl, the feathered serpent deity associated with creation and fertility. This period of artistic and cultural flourishing is often referred to as the "Toltec Renaissance."

However, the Toltec civilization faced numerous challenges that contributed to its eventual decline. Internal strife, including political unrest and power struggles, weakened the central authority of the Toltec empire. Additionally, environmental degradation and resource depletion likely played a role in undermining the sustainability of Toltec society.

Externally, conflicts with neighboring civilizations, such as the Chichimecs and the Mixtecs, further strained the Toltec empire. These conflicts, along with raids and invasions from other Mesoamerican groups, gradually eroded Toltec power and influence.

The exact end of the Toltec civilization is still a subject of debate among historians. Some scholars argue for a gradual decline over several centuries, while others suggest a more sudden collapse around the 12th century AD. Regardless of the precise timing, the decline of the Toltec civilization paved the way for the rise of other Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Aztecs, who would come to dominate the region in the centuries that followed.

In conclusion, the Toltec civilization began around the 10th century AD and experienced a period of military expansion, cultural flourishing, and architectural achievement. However, internal strife, external conflicts, and environmental challenges ultimately led to its decline, marking the end of an era that left a significant impact on the history and culture of Mesoamerica.

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